Maxillary fractures are frequent in individuals with facial injuries and can result from assault, sports, or auto accidents. Maxillary fractures are a common emergency that need to be evaluated and treated right away to reduce mortality and morbidity.
Due to the difficulty of managing them, midface fractures are treated more seriously than all other maxillofacial injuries. In order to reconstruct the mid-face aperture both aesthetically and functionally, a suitable treatment strategy is required. Interdisciplinary strategies and the right surgical procedures produce favorable results.
What is a facial fracture?
A shattered bone in the face is known as a facial fracture. The bone structure of the face is intricate. The facial skeleton consists of the:
- Frontal bone (forehead)
- Zygomas (cheekbones)
- Orbital bones (eye sockets)
- Nasal bones
- Maxillary bones (upper jaw)
- Mandible (lower jaw)
Numerous other bones might be identified farther inside the facial structure. These bones are connected to the muscles used for talking, swallowing, and chewing.
The most frequent fracture is a nasal fracture (broken nose). Other face bones are also susceptible to fractures. It’s possible that you simply have one fracture or that you have multiple shattered bones. In a car crash or other high-impact collision, multiple fractures are more likely to happen. Unilateral (affecting only one side of the face) or bilateral fractures are both possible (occurring on both sides of the face).
Types of facial fractures?
Nasal bones (broken nose)
The most frequent kind of facial fracture is a nasal bone fracture. Two little bones make up the nasal bone. The nasal bones are small and conspicuous, requiring less effort to break them than other face bones. After a fracture, the nose typically appears misshapen or hurts to the touch. It could be more challenging to determine how much damage has occurred if the area is swollen. Bruising around the nose and nosebleeds are typical signs of a nasal fracture.
Frontal bone (forehead) fractures
Adults have one unpaired frontal bone, which is a component of the bony framework that creates the superior and anterior regions of the skull. This bone is first divided by a temporary suture known as the frontal suture. After that, it usually becomes a single front bone without a suture. It serves as the superior component of the orbit and is crucial in safeguarding significant neuronal structures throughout life.
Adults frequently sustain frontal bone injuries as a result of trauma. About 5–15% of all maxillofacial fractures, such as those sustained in attacks, sporting events, and car accidents, result in fractures of the frontal bones, which have a low frequency of occurrence.
The upper jaw (maxilla) and skull bones are connected to the zygomas (cheekbones) at various places. Other neighboring facial bones may shatter as a result of cheekbone fractures.
Orbital fractures (eye socket)
The bony framework around the eye is called the orbit. When one or more of the bones around the eye are broken, the injury is known as an orbital fracture, or eye socket fracture.
Usually, an orbital fracture results from a facial blow or other sort of damage. The location of the fracture can influence whether or not there is substantial eye damage or injury.
Not all fractures require prompt medical attention. Depending on the severity of the damage, we might advise waiting a while before treating the fracture to let the bruising and swelling subside. For serious fractures or if the eye is involved, surgery can be necessary.
Various populations are prone to mid-face fractures. Nearly 5–10% of trauma patients have facial fractures found. Mid-face fractures appear to be most frequently caused by automobile accidents worldwide. The literature lists assaults, falls, sports injuries, and anima attacks as additional causes of facial fractures, including mid-face trauma.
Both in terms of function and aesthetics, the mid-face is crucial. The mid-face skeleton is crucial for giving the respiratory, olfactory, visual, and digestive systems a working unit. Vertical, horizontal, and sagittal pillars make up the mid-face. The secret to maximizing the results of mid-facial restoration is to understand its basic principles.
Mandible (lower jaw)
When you talk or chew, the mandible, which holds the bottom teeth in place, moves. Lower jaw fractures can happen anywhere along the bone, including the body—which supports teeth—the angle, where the jaw curves up into the neck, the condyle, the knobby joint at the top of the jaw bone, and the connection between the two sides of the lower jaw (the symphysis). You can also have teeth that are loose or cracked if you have a break in your lower jaw.
Symptoms of a maxillofacial fracture?
A fracture to the face can cause pain, bruising, swelling, or soreness as well as other symptoms depending on which facial bones are broken.
Broken nose (nasal fracture)
- Bruising around the nose
- Difficulty breathing
Forehead fracture (frontal bone)
- The forehead may appear inverted (pushed inward)
- Pain around the sinuses
- Injuries to the eyes
Broken cheekbone/upper jaw (zygomatic maxillary fracture)
- Flatness of the cheek
- Altered sensation underneath the eye on the affected side
- Problems with eyesight
- Pain with jaw movement
Eye socket (orbital) fracture
This involves the bones of the eye socket. It usually happens when a blunt object such as a fist or a ball hits the eye.
- A black eye
- Redness or bleeding in the white of the eye
- Blurry or decreased vision
- Numbness in the forehead, eyelids, cheek, or upper lip/teeth
- Swelling of the cheek or forehead
- Bruising, swelling, or tenderness along the jaw or below the ear
- Inability to bring the teeth together properly (malocclusion)
- Bruising under the tongue (almost always indicates a jaw fracture)
- Missing or loose teeth
- Numbness in the lower lip or chin
Midface (maxillary) fracture
- The main symptom is swelling or deformity on the face.
What causes fractures in the face?
There are several ways to shatter the bones in your face, including:
- Accidents with high impacts, like car crashes.
- A sports injury.
- Workplace mishaps
- Interpersonal trauma such as physical altercations or domestic abuse.
Treatment of Maxillofacial Fractures
This depends on the precise nature of your injury, how severe it is, and whether you are already dealing with any other issues. The aim of your doctor’s treatment will be to restore the bones to their original alignment. The fracture is “reduced” in this way. To avoid further harm, they’ll also want to retain the bones in place. In medical parlance, this is “fixing” the fracture. Patient might require surgery. Or, to fix your injury, a doctor might use plates, screws, cables, or other implants.
A closed reduction (resetting the shattered bone or bones without surgery) or an open reduction can generally be used to repair fractures (surgery that requires an incision to reposition the fractured bones). Reconstructive surgery is required for complicated fractures involving several shattered bones.
Implants of maxillofacial fractures by Zealmax Ortho
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Zealmax Ortho is a trusted manufacturer of Maxillofacial systems which are available in a wide range of shapes & structures and all the plates are color-coded by size for easy identification.