Pelvic fractures are serious injuries that involve the breakage of bones in the pelvic region. They can occur due to high-impact accidents such as motor vehicle collisions, falls from heights, or sports-related injuries. Pelvic fractures are often associated with significant trauma to the body and can result in severe bleeding, organ damage, and other life-threatening complications.
Pelvic fractures can vary in their severity and complexity. Some fractures may involve only one bone in the pelvis, while others may involve multiple fractures and dislocations. The type and extent of the fracture determine the treatment approach, which can range from conservative management to surgical intervention. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the intricacies of pelvic fractures, explore the use of plates in their treatment, and provide valuable insights for a better understanding of this complex condition.
Types of Pelvic Fractures
Here are some of the common types of pelvic fractures:
- Stable Fractures: Stable fractures involve a single break in one of the pelvic bones, and the bones remain relatively aligned. These fractures typically occur due to low-energy trauma, such as a minor fall.
- Unstable Fractures: Unstable fractures are more severe and involve multiple breaks in the pelvic bones. These fractures can be further categorized into two subtypes:
- Displaced Fractures: Displaced fractures occur when the fractured bones are significantly shifted out of their normal position. These fractures can cause instability in the pelvis and may be associated with damage to nearby structures such as blood vessels and organs.
- Non-displaced Fractures with Ligamentous Injury: In some cases, pelvic fractures may not exhibit displacement of bones but can be unstable due to ligamentous injuries.
- Open Fractures: Open fractures, also known as compound fractures, occur when the fractured bones break through the skin, exposing the bone to the external environment. These types of fractures carry a higher risk of infection due to the open wound.
- Avulsion Fractures: Avulsion fractures are unique types of fractures that involve the detachment of a small piece of bone where a ligament or tendon attaches. They typically occur as a result of sudden, forceful muscle contractions or excessive pulling of the attached tendon or ligament.
- Ring Fractures: Ring fractures involve disruption or fractures at multiple points of the pelvic ring, which includes the ilium, pubis, and ischium bones. These fractures often occur due to high-energy trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents or falls from significant heights.
- Acetabular Fractures: Acetabular fractures specifically involve the cup-shaped socket of the hip joint, which is formed by the pelvic bones.
Causes and Risk Factors of Pelvic Fractures
Pelvic fractures occur when a significant force is applied to the pelvis, leading to bone breakage. Common causes include:
Trauma: High-energy events like motor vehicle accidents, falls from heights, and sports injuries can cause pelvic fractures.
Osteoporosis: Low bone density and deterioration in osteoporosis make bones more prone to fractures, even with minor trauma or falls.
Age: The risk of pelvic fractures increases with age due to age-related bone loss, impaired mobility, and balance issues.
Motor Vehicle Accidents: Collisions involving cars, motorcycles, or pedestrians can generate substantial force, resulting in pelvic fractures.
Sports and Recreational Activities: Contact sports, extreme sports, and activities with a high risk of falls or collisions increase the likelihood of pelvic fractures.
Orthopedic Implants for Pelvis Fractures
Orthopedic implants play a crucial role in the surgical management of these fractures. These implants are designed to provide stability, promote bone healing, and restore the normal function of the pelvis. Here are some commonly used orthopedic implants for pelvic fractures:
- Plates and Screws: Plates and screws are the primary implants used in the fixation of pelvic fractures. They are used to hold the fractured bones in place and provide stability during the healing process.
- Reconstruction Plates: Reconstruction plates are specialized orthopedic implants used for complex pelvic fractures that involve significant bone loss or comminution (multiple fragments). These plates are longer and wider than traditional plates, allowing for reconstruction and restoration of the fractured pelvic ring.
- Pelvic Reconstruction Plates: Pelvic reconstruction plates are specifically designed for severe pelvic fractures that require extensive reconstruction of the pelvic ring. These implants are broader and longer than standard plates and are used to stabilize and connect multiple fracture fragments or disrupted pelvic structures.
- Pelvic Brim Plates: Pelvic brim plates are used for fractures involving the pelvic brim, which is the curved upper border of the pelvis. These plates are contoured to match the shape of the pelvic brim and are secured with screws to stabilize the fractured bones.
- Intramedullary Nails: Intramedullary nails are occasionally used for specific types of pelvic fractures, particularly those involving the long bones of the pelvis, such as the femur. These implants are inserted into the bone canal and provide stability by acting as an internal splint.
Orthopedic Plates for Pelvis Fractures
Anterior Brim Plate
- Precontoured in specific areas, manual bending preferred in others
- Available in 12- and 14-hole configurations
- Interface with the Acumed Pubic Symphysis Plate
- Aid in buttressing fractures
- Available in 5- and 9-hole configurations
- Angled posterior holes to direct screws away from the acetabular joint
Posterior Wall Acetabular Plate
- Precontoured distally to match the curvature of the ischial tuberosity
- Uncontoured proximal end with grouped proximal holes
- Optimized bone purchase away from the acetabular joint for enhanced stability.
Curved Posterior Wall Acetabular Fragment Plate
- Precontoured distal end matching the anatomy of the ischial tuberosity
- Prongs for capturing comminuted fractures of the acetabular wall
- Proximal end curves around the acetabular cup
- Proximal screw placement optimizes bone purchase, avoids acetabular joint
Acumed Acetabular Spring Plate
- Specifically designed for fractures of the posterior wall of the pelvis
- Available in 2- and 3-hole configurations
- Prongs to help retain fragments in the posterior wall
- Center slot for fine-tuning plate placement
- Compatible with other plates in the Acumed Pelvic Plating System
Quadrilateral Surface Plate
- Designed to buttress the medial wall of the acetabulum
- Separated tabs offer stability to the fragment
- Accommodates screw placement on the pelvic brim or medial wall
- Can be used with the Anterior Brim Plate
Pubic Symphysis Plate
- Precontoured to approximate the anatomy of the pubic crest
- Available in 4- and 6-hole configurations
- Addresses disruptions of the Pubic Symphysis joint
- Features compression slots for up to 2 mm of compression
- Interfaces with the Acumed Anterior Brim Plate
3.5 mm Reconstruction Plate
- Available in 3- to 16-hole configurations
- Addresses various fracture patterns within the pelvis
- Can be contoured and trimmed as necessary
- Interlocking Reconstruction Plate available as well for additional versatility
Zealmax Innovations Pvt. Ltd. is a leading Indian manufacturer and exporter of orthopedic implants. With expertise in developing innovative solutions, they specialize in manufacturing orthopedic plates for pelvis fractures. Zealmax’s commitment to quality, competitive pricing, and customized manufacturing, along with their government recognition, global customer base, and advanced manufacturing hub, make them a trusted choice. ISO and FDA certifications ensure their stringent quality control and dedication to excellence.